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Cape zoanthid
(Isozoanthus capensis)
Sponge zoanthid
(Parazoanthus sp.)


 
Zoanthids (order Zoantharia also called Zoanthidea or Zoanthiniaria) are an order of cnidarians commonly found in coral reefs, the deep sea and many other marine environments around the world. These animals come in a variety of different colonizing formations and in numerous colors. They can be found as individual polyps, attached by a fleshy stolon or a mat that can be created from small pieces of sediment, sand and rock. The term "zoanthid" refers to all animals within this order Zoantharia, and should not be confused with "Zoanthus", which is one genus within Zoantharia

If zoanthids can be distinguished from other colonial anthozoans and soft coral by their characteristic of incorporating sand and other small pieces of material into their tissue to help make their structure (except for the family Zoanthidae). The main characteristic of the order is its tentacles organised in two distinct rows. While the most well-known zoanthids are the zooxanthellate genera found in tropical and sub-tropical waters (primarily Zoanthus and Palythoa), many other species and genera exist, some still relatively unknown to science.Many zoanthids (in particular the genera Epizoanthus and Parazoanthus) are often found growing on other marine invertebrates.

Often in zooxanthellate genera such as Zoanthus and Palythoa there are a large number of different morphd of the same or similar species. Such zooxanthellate genera derive a large portion of their energy requirements from symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae), similar to many corals, anemones, and some other marine invertebrates.

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